##### Figure 1. The Warping commands

To visualize the stress field over the cross-section of a beam, the following steps must be completed first.

1. Load the case you want to run and perform the finite element analysis, and

Once these steps are completed, you are ready to visualize the warping field. Select the menu Warping, to reveal the options shown in fig. 1.

## The warping field

The warping field comprises three warping components, which can be divided into two groups.

1. The out-of-plane warping component. The axial warping component, w1 (x2, x3).
2. The in-plane warping components. The two in-plane warping components, w2 (x2, x3) and w3 (x2, x3).

The usual sign conventions are used for these various warping components. Note that in Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, all warping components are assumed to vanish, except for Poisson's effects.

## Visualization of the reference configuration (Warping→Reference)

It is often desirable to return the graphical window to the display the reference configuration of the cross-section. Command Warping→Reference performs this task. Figure 1 shows the reference configuration of the I-section: the mesh of the cross-section is shown in blue and the nodes are depicted as green squares.

## Visualization of the warping field (Warping→Warping)

Command Warping→Warping depicts the three components of the warping field, w1, w2, and w3. Figure 1 shows the warping field of an I-section subjected to a torque M1. The blue mesh shows the reference configuration of the cross-section and the purple shows its warped configuration. The three components of warping are taken into account to evaluate the deformed configuration of the section.

Because the warping field involves both in-plane and out-of-plane components, it was necessary to rotate the cross-section using the Graphics→Rotate commands.

Typically, the magnitude of the warping field is very small. To make it visible, use the Graphics→Data size + or Graphics→Data size - commands to adjust its magnitude appropriately.